A 50th Anniversary Thank You!

The Historic Camden Foundation would like to thank all those who participated in our November 6th and 7th events. We are proud that you chose to join us in celebrating the extraordinary Colonial and Revolutionary War history of Camden and Kershaw County!

 

 

AN ECONOMIC FORCE FOR CAMDEN: HIGHLIGHTING THE SOUTHERN CAMPAIGN OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

By: Virginia Zemp – Executive Director of the Historic Camden Foundation

AN ECONOMIC FORCE FOR CAMDEN:

HIGHLIGHTING THE SOUTHERN CAMPAIGN OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

It is critical that Historic Camden remains strong to participate in the new Revolutionary War Visitors’ Center at Camden, set to open in the spring of 2021.  The focus of the center will be the story of the Southern Campaign.  A visit next door to Historic Camden will be the first step in the journey of discovery.

Our partner, the American Battlefield Trust has an incredible website for learning about Revolutionary War battles. https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/southern-theater-american-revolution  Their website relates that “Many historians consider the Revolutionary War to have been decided in the swamps, fields, woods and mountains of the South, won by the resilience and determination of Continental soldiers and Patriot militia. Although the full story of the Southern Campaigns is not widely known, the events of 1779-1782 in the Carolinas directly led to an American victory in the war.

More than 200 battles and skirmishes occurred in South Carolina during the war. Working with a panel of historians and archaeologists to select the most significant of these actions, the American Battlefield Trust and the South Carolina Battleground Preservation Trust have developed plans to form The Liberty Trail, an innovative driving route designed to connect these battlefields and tell the captivating and inspiring stories of this transformative chapter of American history. The American Battlefield Trust and the South Carolina Battleground Preservation Trust are now working toward the launch of the initial phase of The Liberty Trail.”

Historic Camden Foundation properties are included in The Liberty Trail and our displays must reflect the same

standards.   BCBS of South Carolina, OceanaGold/Haile Gold Mine, Luck Stone and The Brady Foundation have stepped up to get exhibits started. We need your time, energy and connections to prepare for the new opportunity. The Camden Visitor

 

 Center and its connection to the Camden Battlefield and the Liberty Trail throughout South Carolina have the potential for dramatically increasing tourism in Camden and Kershaw County.

November 7th, 2020, Historic Camden Foundation will highlight the Liberty Trail and the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution. Join us as we provide an outdoor living history journey on our Broad Street campus.  Visitors will engage the Revolutionary War Southern Campaign as you walk through historically related exhibits and demonstrations. Activities will be held outdoors and adhere to governmental restrictions for distancing and face covering.

 

 

More from American Battlefield Trust educational programs:

“The Southern Theater of the Revolutionary War is often reduced to the battles of CamdenCowpensGuilford Courthouse, and Yorktown. In fact, fighting in the Southern colonies raged through the entire war and was an area of great concern for both sides.  In the final years of the war, following the fall of Charleston to the British in May 1780, the South became the principal theater of the Revolutionary War. In addition to regular fighting between the armies, a civil war erupted between Patriots and Loyalists, with many small battles between militias raging throughout the countryside.”

 

Historic Camden: Commemorating the 240th Anniversary of the Battle of Camden

During this past year, you have been walking and reading with me on a journey through stories of Camden’s colonial backcountry settlement, the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution and the Kershaw House as the 1780 British Forward Operating Base.

On August 15, 2020 our RevWar Days commemorated both the Battle that took place in our County on that day 240 years ago and we celebrated the hardworking colonial townspeople that continued to work the land and toil for their freedoms. We are grateful to have incredible artisans today, demonstrating the crafts which sustained this City during those early times.

Iron Forge      Pottery Maker    Brickyard   Colonial Garden

In addition, to educate our visitors, we engaged the stories of the British Occupation of the Kershaw House through artifacts, cannon demonstrations and talks.  Thank you to all who participated and visited our site. We look forward to more celebrations of Camden and Kershaw history. Mark your calendars for November 7th and the 50th Anniversary events celebrating Historic Camden Foundation’s legacy of preservation and South Carolina’s Liberty Trail

I want to share our opening remarks from the Battle of Camden Commemoration given by our Board Chairman, Bob Giangiorgi.

Thank you for joining Historic Camden Foundation for the 240th Anniversary of the Battle of Camden. We are proud to be the stewards of this battlefield and through it will create a greater appreciation of America’s remarkable story.

 

I would like to focus our thoughts on an inspirational group who joined this Battle, giving the full measure here 240 years ago.

In April 1780, Washington chose Major General Johann DeKalb and his Maryland and Delaware troops to march south. In early May the foreign born DeKalb became the senior American officer in the South. Congress decided to place an American in charge and selected Horatio Gates. DeKalb agreed to continue in command of the Maryland and Delaware troops, and to serve as the second-in-command to the new southern commander, bringing him to this property in August 1780.

 

John Beakes apply describes the battle in his biography of DeKalb. “On the morning of August 16, 1780, Major General DeKalb rose and prepared for combat, as he had done many times over the past thirty-seven years. His strength, fitness, and imposing presence had served him well throughout his career, and brought him home safe from earlier engagements. Yet forty-five minutes later after the opening fire at Camden, the American army would be routed, deKalb’s Maryland and Delaware divisions would be shattered, and his giant figure would be brought low by three bullet wounds and eight cuts from swords and bayonets.  Captured and treated with the greatest respect by his British foes, his life slowly ebbed away over the next three days.”

DeKalb, his troops and all those who fought and died on this land are why the Daughters of the American Revolution preserved this spot in 1909. And why Historic Camden Foundation protects our grounds and creates experiences to learn about their lives given to the American Revolutionary cause.

 

Let us consider those lives given as we join Major General Julian Burns in prayer.

The Colonial Catawba of the Carolinas

South Carolina’s Native American history is one that is rich, vast and reaches back in time thousands of years. One of the most prominent tribes is the Catawba (yeh is-WAH h’reh or “people of the river”), who have lived along the Catawba River for roughly 6,000 years. In 1540, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto passed through the Piedmont region of North Carolina on his expedition west. There he would encounter the Catawba people, marking the first documented contact with the tribe after remaining largely private previously. While noteworthy, it was the election of King Hagler (Nopkehee) in 1754 that ushered in an era where the tribe would begin to expand

King Hagler statue located on Town Green in Camden (created by Maria J. Kirby-Smith)

King Hagler, often referred to as the “patron saint of Camden,” brought progress to the Catawba Nation. The Catawba endured many hardships leading up to this time, including a smallpox epidemic in 1738 that afflicted the population substantially. Hardship was not the only challenge they were faced with, as the 1750s saw an influx of European settlers making home on the land around them. Hagler, a fierce but fair negotiator, strived to establish an agreement with the new settlers that would allow them to coexist and work together. This relationship proved successful as the Catawba became known not only for their remarkable pottery but also as renowned traders, especially of quality furs. The tribe continued to prosper under Halger as he strived to maintain peaceful relationships with the settlers and expand opportunities for his people. While enjoying this newfound

success, the Catawba would soon find themselves faced with hardship once again in 1759 when stricken with another smallpox outbreak. The epidemic proved tragic for the burgeoning Catawba Nation, resulting in the deaths of nearly half their population. The remaining Catawba persevered and pressed on, with the continued guidance of Hagler. While the Catawba worked through the challenges and hardships they were facing, the world was changing as a war waged on around them. The Catawba

John Evans 1756 map indicating Catawba warrior number and location (source – The Catawbas by James Merrell)

would become involved in the French and Indian War, with Hagler sending men to fight alongside George Washington in the Ohio territory. The Catawba were fierce warriors, as noted in Washington’s journals, where he also talks about how valuable their support was in the war efforts. Their friendship and support to the English settlers was recognized in 1763 when the King of England granted the Catawba 144,000 acres of land, which they would then rent to settlers. Tragically, about this same time, King Hagler was killed by members of a rival tribe as he traveled back from Charles Towne. Unfortunately, their hardships continued as the colonists renting their land would pressure them about allowing them to own the land for themselves. The state of South Carolina entered negotiations with the Catawba hoping to strike a new deal. An agreement was reached that called for the Catawba to concede their 144,000 acres in exchange for a tract of land with a smaller population and monetary payment. This deal marked the end of an era for the Catawba Nation, but it would not be their demise.

While fascinating, this blog only scratches the surface in telling the story of a people-group that goes much deeper. We hope to continue telling the story of South Carolina’s rich history in future installments, including expanding upon groups like the Catawba. Please continue to follow us as we strive to preserve, educate and celebrate the history that makes South Carolina, and Historic Camden, so important!

By: Lance Player – Historic Camden Staff

Sources

  1. Lewis, Kenneth E. The Carolina Backcountry Venture: Tradition, Capital, and Circumstance in the Development of Camden and the Wateree Valley, 1740-1810. The University of South Carolina Press, 2017.
  2. “About The Nation.” Catawba Indian Nation, www.catawbaindian.net/.
  3. Merrell, James Hart, and Frank W. Porter. The Catawbas. Chelsea House Publishers, 1989.

Historic Camden Happenings

By: Virginia Zemp – Executive Director

The “New Normal” we are all experiencing has changed everything we do this year and will impact our plans for the near future. Preparing for the Visitor Center, Historic Camden Foundation had already started to make some exciting changes to share our colonial history and create a greater appreciation for America’s story.  

Our ability to show our buildings, experience the colonial way of life and engage the Revolutionary War story, continues to highlight an historic will to fight and survive.  Enhancing spaces with exhibits will allow visitors and locals alike to revisit the remarkable sites we protect. To meet the safety of staff and visitors, SC Department of Commerce Approval Process for Gatherings and Events provides a planning and protocol process, which Historic Camden Foundation will follow.  The City of Camden ordinance for masks and distancing will be adhered to on all Historic Camden properties.

Exhibits tell a deeper story with artifacts and living history, encouraging participation of visitors in Kershaw County’s extraordinary story.  In the Kershaw Cornwallis House, the exhibits are planned to be movable and retractable for rental and event opportunities. We have added artifact content to our guided tours.  Throughout August and September, the first floor features a Native American Exhibit loaned from the USC Native American Studies in Lancaster.

Share a Little of that Human Touch:  The Prehistory of South Carolina”

Discover over 12,000 years of Camden and South Carolina history beginning with the Paleoindian Period to the iconic Chiefdom of Cofitachequi. The exhibit displays decades of anthropological research and rare Native American artifacts. In addition, the Camden Archives have graciously loaned us their Native American artifacts from the “Collection of Lewis F. Anderson.” 

The exhibit was produced and funded by Humanities SC, USC Lancaster Office of the Dean, USC Office of the Vice President for Research, and USC Lancaster’s Native American Studies Center. Special thanks to Chris Judge of USC Lancaster as well as Katherine Richardson and Rickie Good of the Camden Archives. 

Historic Camden is a National Park Service Affiliated site, comprised of 100+ acres, much of which holds archaeological artifacts safely underground. We protect our spaces while continuing to encourage events, festivals and visitation as an economic development opportunity for the City. Under the current COVID guidelines, we will safely hold events and plan for the future, revising and pivoting as necessary to provide an enjoyable experience. Join us August 15th for the opening of our Joseph Kershaw Horticulture and Trade Program. 10am to 4pm to see how our spaces are being enhanced to tell your story.

Update on the Historic Camden Horticulture and Trade Program

By:  Southwick C Briggs II

Founder:  Hemp Earth & Lime Co & CI Labor Readiness Training Co.

The City of Camden has a long history of brickmaking and now visitors to Historic Camden will be able to get their hands and feet muddy making bricks at the new colonial brickyard.  The brickyard is just the first step in a series of trade and horticultural hands-on exhibits designed to understand, interpret and demonstrate the tools and manufacturing processes used within the context of an 18th century non-plantation, semi-subsistence society like the colonial town of Camden.  Colonel Camden was the only multi-functioning, South Carolina, inland settlement during the Colonial period.

Hand-making bricks is just the beginning of the story for visitors to the brickyard.  The brickyard will be hosting all kinds of interesting hands-on workshops, starting in early July, with a 2-day fun “Do it Yourself” workshop on how to build an 18th century wood-fired earthen oven. Great for making pizza!  The brickyard will also be available on Friday evenings for fun social and team building events.

Visitors to the new colonial brickyard this summer will also have an opportunity see how relevant the past is to properly train young men and women for the future.  Journeyman Richard French has spent more than twenty years working as a highly paid refractory mason, working all over North America.  This summer French will be spending six weeks at Historic Camden’s new colonial brickyard passing along his knowledge of bricklaying and refractory masonry to young men and women taking their first steps as apprentice bricklayers.

As French explained on a recent visit to Historic Camden, “Bricklaying and refractory masonry are ancient professions passed down from one generation to another through a formal apprenticeship. The basic bricklaying skills I learned at the International Masonry Institute over 20-years ago and am now passing on to a new generation of bricklayers are the same skills taught over 250 years ago in colonial Camden.

French feels the advantage of a 21st century pre-apprentice bricklayers program being taught at Historic Camden’s new colonial brickyard, is that student will be exposed to the history and fundamentals of brickmaking, bricklaying and refractory masonry in its purest form.  Something he wished he had experienced as a young apprentice.

The pre-apprentice readiness training program was created by Historic Camden to provide underemployed and unemployed young men and women, that have graduated from youth development programs like “YouthBuild”, with the opportunity to work for large commercial and industrial companies as apprentice bricklayers or certified support labor at a living wage with ample opportunity for advancement within those companies.

The new colonial brickyard is just the first step in a series of trade and horticultural hands-on exhibits coming to Historic Camden.  For example, in the near future, a portion of the Bradley house will be transformed into an 18th century potworks throwing room displaying a working reproduction of an 18th century Staffordshire potter’s wheel, that would have been used by John Bartlam, a Staffordshire master potter from England.  Bartlam moved to Camden in 1772 and was the first potter in Colonial America to manufacture porcelain.

Demonstration and workshops will be offered by Marti Wallace, a local Camden art teacher and potter.  And with the help our new colonial brickyard pre-apprentice masonry students we will be building a reproduction of an 18th century bottle kiln which would have been used by John Bartlam to wood-fire is pottery.

A Staff Ride

**The following letter (bold/italicized) accompanies the article that follows**

Department of the Army

UNITED STATES ARMY CENTRAL  1 GABRESKI DRIVE

SHAW AIR FORCE BASE, SC 29152

Staff Ride Participants

Welcome to USARCENT’s Battle of Camden Staff Ride.

This will be a terrific day as we all walk some hallowed and sacred ground. We will have time to reflect on the powerful events of the Southern Campaign of the Revolutionary War. This staff ride is a vehicle to deepen our understanding of strategic and operational challenges, to build our USARCENT team, and to explore the conditions of the counter insurgency.

We look forward to your insights and your thoughtful analysis of this pivotal engagement, as well as how we can apply lessons from our history to today’s fight. The attached Battle Book will give you the background necessary to understand this battle.

Please focus your thoughts and analysis and be prepared to discuss COIN doctrine as well as how our priorities relate to this and the current fight: Readiness, Protect the Force,

Communicate, Transitions. Also expect that you will be able to address issues relating to your directorate, for instance the G2 discuss the intelligence issues in a COIN fight, the G4 discuss logistics, the Surgeon discuss medical issues etc.

As we discuss these points, make sure you remember that staff rides give us a point of view of something important in history. To make the best use of history, we must learn the lessons and apply them—if applicable—to the situation we find ourselves in today.

I look forward to walking the ground at Camden with you, building our team, and discussing the challenges we face in the CENTCOM AOR.

Michael X. Garrett

Lieutenant General, U.S. Army

Commanding


HISTORIC CAMDEN FOUNDATION IS PROUD TO ASSIST TODAY’S MILITARY!

Excerpt from US Army Central BATTLE BOOK 9/27/2017 with permission:

This Staff Ride is a vehicle to deepen our understanding of strategic and operational challenges…

Precis (Overview):

Three years after Lexington and Concord, the American Revolution was at a stalemate. The British had the best trained and equipped Army in the world, but they were static in large cities with limited resources due to manpower shortages—the entire British Army only had 60k troops in 1778 and 1/2 of those were in the Colonies. Additionally, there was no joint command—naval and land forces operated independently. The government also had to deal with a huge budget deficit and divided political support. More importantly, France’s declaration of war in 1778 made the colonies an economy of force mission, secondary, particularly for the navy, to defending the West Indies and the home island. The British were undergoing American fatigue.

Hoping for a different outcome with a different approach, the British implemented a “Southern Strategy”: seizing the initiative in the Southern Colonies to capitalize on the supposed large population of Loyalists. The plan was to occupy Savanah, then Charleston, thus pacifying South Carolina and provoking the long-hoped for Loyalist uprising. Then maneuvering through North Carolina and Virginia, thus subduing the rebellion from South to North.

When Charleston SC succumbed to a siege in May 1780, the Brits captured the 5500 man Rebel Army—the greatest loss of the war. The rebellion was in disarray, on the verge of logistical collapse. Rebels across the state surrendered and all active resistance ended. However, after initially giving liberal parole, Lt. Gen. Clinton, Commander-in-Chief for North America, ordered all citizens to sign a loyalty oath and fight for the crown. Furthermore, he didn’t restore civil authorities, but installed a military government.

Clinton returned to New York City leaving his second in command, Lt. Gen. Cornwallis, with ~8,000 troops to occupy SC and GA as well as NC—total population of 500k and approximately the size of Iraq. The British/Loyalists quickly won a series of small battles, including a pursuit and “massacre” by their most aggressive and successful commander, Lt. Col. Tarleton. They occupied fortified outposts (Forward Operating Bases and Combat Outposts) along the coast from Savannah to Georgetown, and in an arc across central SC from Augusta to Camden.

Cornwallis led the occupation of Camden, then returned back to the main base at Charleston to command the Southern theater and attend to administrative duties. He left the capable Lord Rawdon in command of the interior posts. However, the British victories and occupation did not end the rebellion in South Carolina; instead their actions stirred up the ongoing brutal civil war between Loyalists and Rebels. Both sides employed information operations, and when the Rebels won several small battles, the rebellious spirit was kept alive and the Loyalist population was cowed into neutrality.

A small Continental Army force of 1,400 regulars was in Virginia moving south when Charleston fell, thus escaping that disaster. This force was both a dilemma and an opportunity for the British. As long as the rebels had a nucleus of regular troops, the occupied areas could never be properly garrisoned or pacified as British logistics and lines of communication remained a weakness throughout the campaign. Conversely, the Rebel army was a center of gravity that the British regulars were best suited to defeat.

Rebel Maj. Gen. Gates assumed command of the “Army of the South” in late July, and this force became the nucleus of a 4,000 man militia and Continental army. Within a week, Gates, ignoring advice from subordinates who knew the area of operations, immediately began marching into SC via a direct, unsustainable route, preparing to fight conventional forces in a conventional manner using mostly irregular troops.

Moreover, Gates ignored readiness, bungled transitions, communicated poorly, disregarded logistics, snubbed cavalry, and marginalized partisans. As his precipitous flight from the battlefield would show, he also lacked physical courage. All this contributed to the complete defeat at Camden, the second largest rebel defeat of the war, and the second loss of an army in SC in three months.

The Battle of Camden marked the high water mark for the British in the South. At this point, there was no longer any rebel Army in the South (only 700 rebel soldiers were able to regroup in NC after the battle), and Brits seemed to control the entire state. However, only one year after this conventional victory, the Rebels would engage again at Camden, the British would have compressed all forces remaining in SC into Charleston, and Cornwallis would be under siege at Yorktown.